Creativity and College Completion: Certificates

By Bret Danilowicz, Dean of Arts and Sciences, Oklahoma State University

To achieve Oklahoma’s goal of increasing the number of students who complete higher education, we need to connect with a broader audience than just “traditional” undergraduate students.  I define traditional students as those who progress into a full-time undergraduate degree program within a few years of completing high-school- roughly 60% of our high-school graduates.  For the non-traditional population (the remaining 40%), the cost, time and interest needed to complete an undergraduate degree can be overwhelming.  Let me walk you through why, and follow with a recommendation how our state can provide a simpler transition into higher education for non-traditional students.

Higher education is generally perceived as a two-year or four-year degree.  Although the value of a degree to a graduate’s long-term earnings is well documented, the upfront cost is daunting.  For individuals paying for their tuition, fees, books, and other expenses, costs range roughly from $6,000 for a 2-year degree at a public community college to over $200,000 for a 4-year degree at a private university. The cost is well known; what the potential student does not know is if they themselves will complete the degree to benefit from its cost.  Will they achieve passing grades and will their personal motivation for the coursework persist?

Compounding the cost investment is the time needed to complete a degree.  Many non-traditional students need to work full-time (or close to it) to cover their living expenses – and possibly their family’s- while also covering the cost of their degree.  Someone working full time and managing to take four courses a year (an accomplishment in itself) would take five years to receive a “two-year” associates degree or ten years to receive a “four-year” baccalaureate degree- assuming the student passes all of their courses.  Cost + time = uncertainty about higher education degrees.

Yet there is another route towards completion in higher education: undergraduate certificates.  These certificates are comprised of a small group of related courses that provide targeted education within a specific subject area.  Certificates can be used as a stepping stone to a full degree- allowing a student to take courses which immediately align with their career interests, yet also align with the requirements of a full undergraduate degree (should they choose to continue after earning a certificate).  Starting at just five courses, these certificates cost as little as $1,500 at a community college and can be completed in under two-years even by part-time students.  Upon completion, certificates add value to a person’s competitiveness in the workforce, adding an average of 27% pay for men and 16% pay for women1– and these count towards Oklahoma’s completion agenda.  (The primary reason for the gender difference appears to be the certificates associated with the largest salary increases as in the computer-related fields tend to be predominantly completed by males- see Inside Higher Ed).

Real examples of undergraduate certificates include project management, biotechnology research assistant, digital arts, accounting, and family services: each is directly applicable to a growth area in the workforce (see some options in Oklahoma by looking at the OCCC and TCC websites).  While undergraduate certificates are presently available at community colleges across much of the state, certificate programs number less than a quarter of the available associates degree programs.  Alongside the more limited range of programs, certificates are not promoted with the same effort used to promote degree programs.  Just how aware is Oklahoma’s populace about the certificate option and its potential value?  (Note that undergraduate certificates are also available at universities- but these are generally intended to be taken concurrently with a degree program.)

Colleges should be encouraged to increase the availability of these undergraduate certificates, while the state launches a marketing effort specifically to promote the value and flexibility of these certificates. It would allow non-traditional students an entry into higher education that is likely better suited to their cost and time needs, and they can more quickly assess the value of higher education for their career.  National data suggests that after completing a certificate, a full third of these students will continue into an undergraduate degree program (and there are many benefits to them and Oklahoma for them doing so- perhaps a subject of a future blog?).  While no single solution will result in Oklahoma’s goal to have more of its residents complete some form of higher education- increasing the availability, awareness of, and completion of undergraduate certificates should be a part of the plan.

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Creativity and College Completion: The Challenge

By Blake Sonobe, Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education

A college education has for generations been, for many, the primary route for economic advancement.  I still recall the words of my father, “In order to get ahead, you have to have a good education.”  These words remain true to this day.  Similarly, there is excellent correlation between the economic wealth of a nation and the educational attainment of its people.  Recent studies have shown that the economic health of our nation may be at risk.  The recent Georgetown University study provided the following statistics.  Through 2020,

  • there will be 55 million job openings in the economy; 24 million openings from newly created jobs and 31 million due to baby boom retirements.
  • 35% of the jobs openings will require at least a bachelor’s degree, another 30% will require at least some college or an associate’s degree and the remaining 35% will not require education beyond high school.
  • at the current rate of certificate and degree production in the United States, there will be a shortage of 5 million workers with postsecondary education by 2020.

To remain economically competitive as a state and a nation and to give our residents an opportunity for economic advancement, it is imperative that we significantly increase the number of postsecondary certificates and degrees.  Oklahoma’s Complete College America project was kicked off in September 2011 with five major reforms:

  • Focus on Readiness
  • Transform Remediation
  • Build Bridges to Certificates and Degrees
  • Adult Completion – Reach Higher
  • Track and Reward Progress and Completion – Performance Funding

Through continuous development of strategies to implement the reforms, Oklahoma has exceeded its goals for certificates and degrees in the first two years of Complete College America.  To successfully achieve its goal of increasing the number of degrees and certificates by 67% (the number predicted to be needed in Oklahoma) by 2023, new strategies must be developed in the following areas.

  • Increasing the retention and graduation rates for students attending college.
  • Reaching traditional and non-traditional students who in the past were not able or had not considered attending college.

How can we better do this?  2020 is not far away.

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Becoming Open

By Andrew Lang, Oral Roberts University

This blog post is dedicated to Jean-Claude Bradley who is dearly missed [1, 2].

In 2007, I began investigating how to use Multi User Virtual Environments (MUVEs) such as Second Life for research and education.

I taught a class “Cellular Automata and Finite State Machine” completely in Second Life.

My students working on their cellular automata projects in Second Life - February 2008

My students working on their cellular automata projects in Second Life – February 2008


I worked with my undergraduate research students to development Open chemistry visualization tools [3].

Interaction Selection Rules Demonstration – June 2008

Interaction Selection Rules Demonstration – June 2008


I even did some consulting, developing islands and content for several institutions, including: Nature (NPG), the American Chemical Society (ACS), and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).

Fertilizer Runoff Demonstration on ACS Island – July 2008

Fertilizer Runoff Demonstration on ACS Island – July 2008


As a fan of OpenCourseWare both then and now, all the content, objects, and scripts I developed I released as Open Source. This work culminated with the co-creation of an OpenCourseWare initiative within Second Life “OpenSLedWare” and co-authoring, with Jean-Claude Bradley, a review paper on Chemistry in Second Life [4].

Jean-Claude (the cat) and I presenting together in Second Life – May 2010

Jean-Claude (the cat) and I presenting together in Second Life – May 2010


It is for this creative and Open work that I was named a DaVinci Fellow in 2010. An award that I believe I would not have received if it wasn’t for the collaborative research needed to create the Open Source chemistry visualization tools I co-developed. This is a clear example of how working and collaborating in an open way leads to things that wouldn’t be possible any other way.

Receiving my DaVinci Institute Medallion – March 2010

Receiving my DaVinci Institute Medallion – March 2010


Even though Second Life has never really lived up to the hype or expectations of its early years, it was the Open Education, Open Science philosophy that I experienced and have since adopted that has really made all the difference in my career since, which has included being recognized by Google, the Blue Obelisk Movement, and even The White House [5, 6, 7].

Jean-Claude and I at The White House – June 2013

Jean-Claude and I at The White House – June 2013


I now do all my research completely in the open using a process called Open Notebook Science [8, 9], where all research is made publicly available under a CC0 license in as near real-time as possible. The value of Open Science to society is immense and I believe it is the future for mainstream science. I’m not just talking about Open Access to papers, I’m talking about true Open Science – Open Notebook Science.

If you’re interested in Open Education, Open Science, Open Data, and Open Source initiatives and are unsure where to start, feel free to contact me directly and I’ll point you in the right direction.

Andrew Lang, Professor of Mathematics
Chair, Computing and Mathematics
Oral Roberts University

Quick Links

  1. Jean-Claude Bradley.
  2. InMemoriumJCB.
  3. Visualizing Atomic Orbitals Using Second Life.
  4. Chemistry in Second Life.
  5. Google Recognition. Sci Foo 2009.
  6. Blue Obelisk Award 2014.
  7. White House Recognition 2013.
  8. Open Notebook Science.
  9. My Open Notebook.
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Congratulations to Mary Linn, a 2009 DaVinci Fellow, who after 12 years at the University of Oklahoma and the Sam Noble Museum, will be joining the staff at the Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage at the Smithsonian Institution as Cultural and Linguistic Revitalization, on October 6, 2014.

2014 Fall Forum

The DaVinci Institute in pleased to announce that it will hold its annual Fall Forum at Northern Oklahoma College’s Eleanor Hays Art Gallery – Kinzer Performing Arts Center on October 24th from 9:30am – 3:00 PM.

We will celebrate creativity with artist Dennis Hodges.  Hodges will lead participants in a session devoted to “Powerful Pauses.”

We will also explore using the DART tool (see Creativity@DaVinci link on the DaVinci website) for use is creativity education.

For good measure we’ll add in art, food and ample reasons to smile!

The Schedule for the Day is:

Registration opens at 9:30am

10-10:45am:  Welcome and DART News (DaVinci Academic Research Tool)

11-11:30am:  Perspective: a look at life through a lens (Dennis Hodges)

11:30am -12:30pm:  Lunch and viewing time for A sense of his soul  – art exhibit in gallery

12:30 -2:30pm:  Powerful Pauses – an interactive journey in creativity (Dennis Hodges)

2:30-3:00pm:  Wrap-up

All DaVinci member institutions may send up to two faculty and two students at no charge. Registration for additional participants or for those from non-member institutions is $10, payable when you check in at the event.

Online registration is required for this event.  To register click on the Events link on the website.

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Lack and Restrictions to Prompt Creativity?

Image of Jeff King standing alone in front of a blue and white mural with a red sunburst to the right and above his head.

By Jeff King, Ed.D., Executive Director, Center for Excellence in Transformative Teaching & Learning, University of Central Oklahoma

There’s an exercise that some creative writing teachers use as a spark to student creativity. It goes something like this:

Write a short story.

The first paragraph must be comprised of four sentences. The first sentence must contain 16 words. The second sentence must contain the word, “blue.” The third sentence must mention a season of the year. The fourth sentence must use a gerund.

The second paragraph must be comprised of three sentences. The first sentence must be spoken by the protagonist. The second sentence must refer to a smell. The third sentence must be a spoken exclamation by a character.

You get the idea. Writers are intentionally shackled with restrictions that can be daunting to overcome while still maintaining the flow of a successfully told story with characters, a story arc, and so on.

Students often amaze themselves and others with this exercise. What at first blush seems an impossibly restricting set of directions, and which therefore are initially interpreted as a huge clamp on the creativity needed to write a short story, turns out to be a prompt to the creativity needed to find ways to work successfully within the restrictions.

If such an exercise does unearth otherwise hidden founts of creativity, some might say that an environment or upbringing without much lack could actually limit the instances when children are forced into creative solutions brought on by a dearth of resources. For instance, the idea of making something because it can’t be bought might not occur that often if funds to buy the thing exist and the thing is usually available for easy purchase.

Have you seen a recent soap box derby competition? The first line from an Internet site advertisement for a soap box derby car kit declares that buyers of the kit can “eliminate the necessity of writing time consuming dimensions and descriptions of components” by buying the kit, which includes all of that.

Would a kid who has to find inventive solutions for components he can’t afford to buy be exercising more creativity muscles in the process?

In an online article for Forbe’s, Rob Asghar suggests that money ruins creativity. “If you can’t stretch a dollar, you can’t stretch your imagination,” he says, and he proceeds to offer cautionary tales.

Maybe it all comes down to how humans are most likely to get those flashes of inspiration that result in creative work. “Necessity is the mother of invention” might be more than just a homily.

Or it might be that, in an age of abundance, it’s easy to distract ourselves. In that scenario, it’s never necessary to invent a solution due to a constraint because: 1) constraints don’t come around that often, and 2) there’s that episode of Duck Dynasty on cable that we haven’t seen yet.

Whether we buy our way out of creativity or we distract ourselves from creating, we’ve missed the chance to exercise our creativity muscles.

Perhaps the best situation to prompt creativity is being trapped with no access to distractions. (The place many college students might identify is a boring lecture over material they already know and during which the professor has banned laptop and cell phone usage.)

In such a situation, the restriction you experience coupled with the lack of ability to distract yourself by any other means than directing your attention toward or away from your own thoughts and environment might give your creative self a much-needed opportunity to come out and play.

Living in conditions where there’s not much lack, of course, is not a bad thing.

Unless it’s a lack of creativity.






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By Kyle Dahlem, Executive Director, DaVinci Institute

Consider these questions

  • What foresight has gone into educational decisions, legislative action when considering the role of cultural/economic influences? These are not necessarily new questions but ones that are being asked more frequently.
  • What role does higher education play in addressing health problems? “It is estimated that 13 –20 percent of children living in the United States (up to 1 out of 5 children) experience a mental disorder in a given year . . .” Center for Disease Control, Children’s Health Report. May 16, 2014
  • When will the discrepancy between college debt and career salaries influence college going rates and graduation?
  • As youth become more media-savvy with ubiquitous wireless, global positioning, global information systems displays everywhere, how will higher education adapt?
  • How will higher education respond to unbundled education—open content, curriculum, social media?

Creative minds, innovative practices are needed as strategic planning is developed for the future of higher education.

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Directions of Change

By Kyle Dahlem, Executive Director, DaVinci Institute

This isn’t the first time that I’ve focused my comments on the ever evolving . . . . . .you name it. And it won’t be my last.

“It” is evolving, changing, morphing. Since education is our forte´, let’s name the “it” education.

Like the many earthquakes that have disturbed Oklahomans over the past several years, the unsteady, unpredictable nature of future forces make educating students a “shaky proposition.” Educators must, however, be more proactive and to focus on how the world is changing.

It’s not as if all educators haven’t been thinking about this conundrum.

“Realigning American education for the jobs of the future isn’t just about the duration of school. It’s a question of what to study and how to encourage kids to see their education through.” Time, February 24, 2014, pp. 24-25.

“The Studio School is a new concept in education, which seeks to address the growing gap between the skills and knowledge that young people require to succeed, and those that the current education system provides.” Studio School Trust 2011

Open Culture (, just one of many such sites, offers free online courses from the world’s leading universities-Stanford, Yale, MIT, Harvard, Berkeley, Oxford and more. Their collection includes over 800 free courses in the liberal arts and sciences.

Holographic video games which are in the infant stage of development hold promise for evolving into computer generated classrooms. “Students will learn while moving through real environments with mobile technology. . .” Knowledgeworks Foundation/Institute for the Future, 2006

In the interest of unselfishly preparing for the future we may not experience, creative thinking and innovative implementation must be parts of our daily reflection of what we do as educators.

Think about it. How do you see the future?

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DaVinci Banquet – 2014

2014 DaVinci Banquet

The DaVinci board of Directors will be hosting the 2014 DaVinci banquet at the Oklahoma History Center, March 28 at 6:30 p.m.

Keynoting the banquet will be Dr. E. Ann Nalley, Cameron University Professor of Chemistry, who has distinguished herself in the field of chemistry and science in general.

As Vice President of the Malta Conferences Foundation, she is a leader of an organization which believes that Acts of war and terrorism have destabilized the political and economic climate in the Middle East and around the world, but it remains possible for scientists from opposing sides of the political and cultural conflict to meet in an attempt to forge relationships that bridge the deep chasms of distrust and intolerance.

Nalley was the 2006 president of the American Chemical Society.

Dr. Nalley will share her insights into creativity in science.

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Announcing the 2014 DaVinci Award Recipients


Dr. Aleisha Karjala, USAO
Dr. Christine Pappas, ECU
Wade Watkins, NOC
W.T. Skye Garcia, ECU
Dr. Mary Swanson, NSU


Rae Anne Klement, St. Gregory’s
Laura Borkenhagen, UCO
Amanda Jespersen, NSU
Jessica Becker, St. Gregory’s
Ashley Woody, CU


Marcia Greenwood, Cleveland Elementary, Oklahoma City

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